What is bioenergy?
Bioenergy is renewable energy from biological materials. In its strictest sense is a synonym for biofuels, fuels derived from biological sources. In its broadest sense also includes biomass, biological and technical material used as biofuel, as well as the social, economic, scientific regarding use of biological energy sources. There is a slight tendency for bioenergy in Europe, compared with biofuels in North America. (Wikipedia).
What are the process waste generated?
The process of obtaining methane organic sediment and water as by-products which are treated by vermiculture for incorporation into the soil is generated. The water obtained from the reactor nitrogen is incorporated back into the cactus plantations as fertilizer reinjected in modern irrigation system.
What type of gas is generated and what is its calorific value?
The biogas containing mainly methane and 92% carbon dioxide at 7%, 1% and a gas as nitrogen and hydrogen. Its calorific value is 8,800 kcal / m3.
Why use nopal ?.
The nopal has excellent molecular features which allows to deliver a large amount of biogas in a very short time, in comparative terms for the same volume of biogas nopal degrades 5-10 times faster than animal manure, it allows a single computer is 5- 10 times more productive. Nopal biogas not produce hydrogen sulfide which when burned in contact with air becomes further sulfur oxides and hydrogen sulfide in producing acid rain.
What are the environmental, social and economic benefits of this biofuel?
Generates poles, both economic, social and environmental sustainable development, and the nopal is renewable contracts producers are based on project lifespan to 15 years, so the producer can risk their capital and consumers are guaranteed production for a long period. The energy of the nopal is clean, inexhaustible, generates carbon credits, permanent jobs and solve the energy problem in a sustainable way short, medium and long term.
Why is it that the reactors are low cost?
Unlike more traditional biogas for manure which typically takes two stages and an acid other methanogenic process, which are rather more acidic pH, the pear is processed only slightly acid pH 6.5- 6.8 and in a single step since the time the material is inside the reactor is very short, this makes it unsuitable expensive stainless steel reactor, since it is only necessary to coat the inside with epoxy paint or other plastic type every two years for good maintenance. On the other hand, the lines of the design are implemented with purchasable equipment in the local industrial market and current use.
What is the reason for using this technology?
The technology has existed for over 100 years has been used in India, China, Germany and many other countries. Has significant advantages in terms of cost, environmental and social benefits. It is also considered a very weak solution from the engineering point of view, working at low pressures and room temperature, compared to the production of methane from grounds at sea.
What is the yield per hectare?
Cactus is an extraordinary plant with a modern irrigation, two or three annual crops, can deliver continuously from 1000-1200 ton of biomass / year, in terms of energy equivalent to 20,000 liters of diesel / ha.
Why has not been done before?
Throughout the history of mankind can be seen that the fuels and transportation and countless inventions require not only knowledge but the technological capability to exploit, for centuries the wood is used, then the coal by the industrial revolution boost the development of humanity. Oil only in the last 150 years has been the technical capability of extracting terrestrial and submarine sediment deep. In the case of nopal, biogas is used more than 100 years in China and other Asian countries do, but only in 1984 (Contreras and Toha, U de Chile) have the knowledge that this plant was capable of producing large amounts of energy marginal growing conditions.
Is it a contaminant system?
No, The whole process is completely organic, no pesticides or toxic substances that harm the environment are used.
Can it be replicated?
If we work with cluster of 100 hectares which deliver a modular system allows for replication.
Where you can plant?
The basic interest is in degraded soils, low quality, the cactus is well adapted to climatic conditions for other crops. Species are adapted to alkaline soils acids. The nopal can be planted from 10-3500 meters. with a rainfall of 115 mm to 1500 mm, preferably where there is high solar exposure.
Will more water than other crops Required?
On the contrary, the cactus is a plant of boundary conditions, we can grow under extreme drought conditions. The volume is 3,000 m3 / year, but in the process of biogas is recovered 85% water, about 850 tons which are reinjected into the plant by modern irrigation.
Does harvesting is manual or mechanized?
As many industrial processes is necessary to machine harvest for optimum yield.
Is it necessary cactus plantations are near my consumption to generate electricity?
Depending on the laws of each country in some cases the state retains a monopoly on fuel and electricity generation, however allows self-generation, which is why it is possible to generate electricity at a distant point on the same network and transport by the public system to a point where consumption is lowered.